It must also account for the fact that some structures involved in contact situations are not kept apart but develop in such a way that the distance decreases between the languages involved. Focuses on work situations in Europe, North America and South-Africa, such as academic, medical and public sector, or business settings, in which participants have to make constant use of more than one language to cooperate with partners, clients, or colleagues.
Languages differ regarding both the ways they group words into phrases and the surface cues they use to indicate relevant phrasing patterns. This book expands the cross-linguistic and multilingual perspective of phrasing, focusing thereby on languages from the Romance and Germanic families, among them Catalan, French, German, Italian, ad Occitan.
Focuses on different aspects of language development. This title is concerned with similarities and differences between first and second language acquisition, the acquisition of sentence structure and functional categories, cross-linguistic influence in bilingual first language acquisition. Printed Pages: xviii, pp. Presents discourse production in multilingual contexts as a specific type of language contact situation.
This title collects the papers that focus on the specific properties of language contact through multilingual discourse production. It brings together approaches by historical linguists, language contact researchers and translation scholars. Printed Pages: viii, pp. Deals with the different aspects of creation and use of multilingual corpora. This book aims to take stock of variety of existing multilingual corpora, documenting possible corpus designs, to discuss methodological and technological challenges in creation and analysis of multilingual corpora, and to provide examples of linguistic analyses.
Printed Pages: xix, pp. The aim of this book is to highlight the importance of applied linguistic research concerning the deployment of multilingualism, and, furthermore, to stimulate the debate about it. In this collection of carefully selected papers connectivity is looked at from the vantage points of language contact, language change, language acquisition, multilingual communication and related domains based on various European and Non-European languages.
A sociolinguistic examination of the Russian speech of the American "Third Wave", the migration from the Soviet Union which began in the early s under the policy of detente. The text examines developments in emigre Russian with reference to the late Cold War period and the post-Soviet era. Printed Pages: xxvi, pp. Addressing prominent issues suchs as: Can attrition effects impact on features of core syntax, or are they limited to interface phenomena? Printed Pages: iv, pp. An analyses of the complex relations between multilingualism and the media: how the media manage multilingualism; how multilingualism is presented and used as media content; and how the media are discursive sites where debates about multilingualism and other language-related issues unfold.
Printed Pages: xcv, pp. The book should appeal to linguists who are interested in spoken language in general and in errors and disfluencies in speech in particular, as well as to specialists in second language acquisition and language testing who want to know more about the nature of fluency and accuracy.
The volume, largely theoretical and classificatory, features main theories, prominent researchers and important research trends. Discusses several facets of English in multilingual Europe. This book emphasizes the interdependence between cultures, languages and situations that influence its use. It is of interest to applied linguists, sociolinguists and teachers of English as a foreign language. They provide a snapshot of the research on bilingual acquisition and reflect the diversity of issues, methodologies, and language combinations.
This exception does not, however, allow for the acquisition of a number of languages but rather only of one, albeit in considerable depth. The effect of the tradition of separation has been to create rivalry between languages, competition for curriculum time, and the implication that learners have to make choices which are mutually exclusive. Perceptions thus have an effect on curriculum design through choices made.
Alternative models of curricula can be developed once it is recognised that the learning of a new language is founded on the language s already learnt, that skills and knowledge of language learning are transferred from one to the other and that this transferral can be actively used in pedagogy, rather than ignored as traditional separation requires. Such alternative models in compulsory education include staged introduction of languages from an early age, the use of languages as media of instruction, methodologies which help learners to use acquired skills and knowledge from one language in learning another, design of courses to develop competences in some language skills but not others partial competences , design of curricula to ensure vertical coherence across different education sectors, modular courses of relatively short duration with restricted objectives, intensive courses coupled with periods of residence in another country, etc.
Furthermore, comprehensive language education policies will take into consideration the opportunities for learning a person has throughout life. Post-compulsory, tertiary education institutions may require all learners to acquire language skills, and certification of such skills already exists in many countries. Commercial and industrial enterprises offer learning opportunities, for example in corporate universities.
Institutions of many kinds offer opportunities through adult education which individuals take up as their needs and wants develop for economic, leisure and personal reasons. Such opportunities include specific training provided by employers to ensure their employees can carry out tasks in other countries, but also courses for general enrichment whose aims may coincide with policies of linguistic diversity.
Such provision, however, often ignores previous learning, and language education policies need to encourage all providers to recognise and build upon previous learning, transferable knowledge and skills and the attitudes which accompany them. A comprehensive language education policy needs to take all sources of provision for language learning into account, and ensure that those providers develop their own policies and practices in full awareness of others.
The traditional separation of languages noted above has often led to the specialisation of teachers in one language or, where they specialise in more than one, they continue to teach each as a separate entity. The potential for teachers to provide an integrated approach to language learning - enabling learners to transfer skills and knowledge or working within alternative curricular models - is enhanced when teachers have themselves a range of language learning experience.
The potential development needs to be supported by appropriate teacher education policies and practices. Where language education policies for linguistic diversity require new languages to be offered, the availability of appropriate teachers is crucial. In accordance with the principle of transferable skills and knowledge, those who are already teachers of languages are in the best position to add further languages to their repertoire, but policies need to take proper account of time lapses needed for this.
Lack of available teachers can be partially remedied by other models of teaching and learning than the traditional classroom where one teacher is responsible for the learning of a group of students over a specified period of time. Alternatives can be offered with the help of new technologies, intensive courses, courses with residence in another country where teachers may be more readily available, etc.
It is clear however, that language education policies pre-suppose teacher education policies and the two need to be integrated in overall planning. Language education policies for linguistic diversity need to take into account, first, existing language capacities in learners, and second, the presence of languages and language varieties in a country, region or locality where a language education policy is to be developed and implemented. The analysis can take place at a macro-level with the description of languages used for a variety of purposes in any given geographical area.
It can also involve analysis of the repertoires of languages and language varieties individuals have and the uses they make of their languages. This will, for example, reveal that individuals have some mastery of more languages than might be expected, but that they do not have equal capacities in all their languages, nor equal capacities in the different language skills.
Furthermore, they may not value all their languages equally due to their sharing public perceptions or prejudices about languages, as discussed in the previous chapter. The techniques for analysis of language use are wide-ranging, from large scale surveys to micro-analysis of individuals and their language use.
Such analyses usually make use of specialist terminology, some of which is also used in ordinary conversation, but not necessarily with the same meaning or precision, and a linguistic definition of terms used to designate languages is provided at the end of this chapter. Questions which may arise in the preparation of policies include the following:. The most common means of collecting data on language use is an official census. Data from this kind of survey is self-reported and therefore must be considered with caution. Questions have to be simple and are therefore often reductive.
Similarly, to ask how well someone speaks, or writes or understands a language, leaves the respondent to make estimates which are unscientific and probably arbitrary. The conduct of questionnaire surveys is a major undertaking since the complexity of language use overlooked by most census surveys needs to be taken into consideration, including for example:. Despite the introduction of such distinctions into a questionnaire, there is still a problem of self-report: respondents may be unaware of their language use and unable to report accurately; respondents may also provide socially desirable answers, unwilling, for example, to admit that they speak a disparaged dialect; they may also provide politically desirable answers, knowing that if they say they speak a language, they will be supporting the cause of that language by augmenting the official statistics.
In-depth qualitative studies can overcome some of these problems. Skilled observers can chart the use of languages in detail by participating in the daily life of a social group. The ethnographic analysis of language use which this produces provides the most accurate and sensitive account of language use. Such observation requires a substantial time commitment and can usually only report on a relatively small social group.
This is worthwhile particularly when the group - an ethnic minority for example - is little known and might be unwilling to complete survey questionnaires.
Since, as pointed out in earlier chapters, language education policies need to be sensitive to regional variation within a country, the combination of national census with regional questionnaire survey and ethnographic study is the best means of gaining an accurate picture of language use, and consequently the potential to tailor policies to the needs of different areas and social groups. An audit of the existing languages potential in a given situation is an important first step since people often have undisclosed language skills.
The investigation of present and projected needs can be integrated with this audit using a number of modes of collecting data. A variety of procedures can be used to collect information:. The analysis of the information gathered should be the basis of a policy and programme of action which takes into consideration the existing capacities of individuals, the regional or local configuration of languages and language varieties, the projected interaction with speakers of other languages, all of which may vary from region to region within a country.
Language education policies are being increasingly analysed in academic journals, developing a well established tradition of the study of language policies and language planning in general. International organisations produce reports on education which include information on language education: the European Union collects data on language education in Member States published under EURYDICE; the OECD includes information on language education in its country reports; the International Bureau of Education focuses inter alia on education for citizenship; the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has produced some international surveys.
International information, however, has to be treated with care as parameters differ considerably from country to country; the use of such comparisons in public policy-making often leads to misunderstanding by public media and the public at large see below. The media often seize upon international comparisons in education and influence popular opinion about education policy.
Furthermore, there are widely held perceptions of the supposed capacity of some nations for language learning. However, scientific international comparisons have in fact been few and evaluations of national capacity are more like stereotypes than valid scientific generalisations. Studies which have carried out direct comparisons among countries have been very few. The collection of information about language teaching in European countries is carried out by EURYDICE but this does not include evaluation of achievement by comparative study.
The investigations which have been carried out show that some factors in the level of achievement of a national group in foreign language learning are generalisable and within the control of education systems: the time factor - the amount of curriculum time allocated to learning a foreign language - is a significant predictor of achievement in all the language skills.
Some factors are beyond the direct control of education policies: the level of exposure to a specific foreign language outside the education system, in the media, through international travel or personal contacts, is a significant factor in achievement. Other significant factors may be influenced by education systems and policies: the level of motivation among learners, the use of the language as a medium of instruction, the linguistic proficiency of teachers.
The designation of languages is a political act: to speak of a language or a dialect, of a national or majority language or of mother tongue or first language is to take up a specific position. We shall therefore provide here definitions used in sociolinguistics to designate language varieties as explicitly as possible.
The terms are widely used although not all have acquired a fixed and determined meaning since linguistic research advances in part by refining conceptualisations of language and language use, visible to all but not totally understood. These definitions which will probably not prevent the use of ordinary terms, will provide the opportunity to identify questions which each type of language presents in language education policy development. The designation of a variety of a language as the national language of a polity gives that variety a special status. The level of competence required if someone is to be designated bilingual cannot be defined in absolute terms as the designations are used according to the expectations of the society in question.
A level of competence in two or more languages admired and described as bilingualism in one context, where it is rare, may be considered inadequate in another context because of the banality of bilingualism in the population. There is no scientific basis either for defining bilingualism in terms of range of skills some bilinguals are literate in one language not the other, for example, or more literate in one language than the other.
Both terms are also used to describe countries, regions or localities. A country with two or more official languages is described as bilingual or multilingual, but a country in which there is one official language but many people who speak other languages in their daily lives is also called multilingual. There are in fact very few, if any, European countries which are not multilingual in this sense.
In the case of a country having two or more official languages, individual inhabitants may be monolingual in one of the languages, even though two or more languages are used in the country or region as a whole.
They usually learn the other language s at school but may perceive them almost as foreign languages i. It is found most often in situations where the speakers of a minority language receive their education in their own language and in the dominant language of the society in which they live. The term is thus often used loosely to refer to the education of minority children, but many minorities would prefer to have their children taught solely through the medium of the minority language, other languages being taught as second or foreign languages.
There are thus different purposes for different forms of bilingual education and consequently much ambiguity in the use of this phrase both colloquially and in the scientific literature. On the other hand, for a given group of learners, some languages may be properly designated as more difficult than others.
This means that contemporary languages with the same origins share some underlying similarities which facilitate language learning. A popular mis-conception is that some languages are easier to learn because they have fewer morphological changes i. Yet such languages use other means for the same purposes, for example the order of words, which are less apparent to learners but equally difficult to master.
It can also be used to refer to the status of one language over others in a given country, and the dominance of one language in one region may give way to the dominance of another in another region. In the case of societal dominance, the reference is above all to use in public institutions or in the public domain in general, where it has a formally official or informally accepted higher status. This does not necessarily mean quantitative dominance, since other languages may be spoken more frequently and by more people in private domains despite the formal status afforded to one or more specific languages.
It refers to the language acquired first in early childhood, which has a special status for the child as it is acquired as part of its discovery of the world in primary socialisation, and is in fact crucial to the success of the child in developing normally. Without interaction through the first language in early childhood, development is likely to be abnormal. These are terms used to refer to languages acquired through formal learning in an educational institution or informally by exposure to the language in the environment in which one lives.
They are not the language s of early childhood and primary socialisation. Acquisition by informal exposure to a language in the environment is typically the case of migrants or immigrants. It is widely believed that the psychological processes of acquisition are very similar or even identical in formal and informal acquisition. The scientific literature on the acquisition of languages thus simply refers to second language acquisition.
If learners have opportunity to acquire another language present in their environment - irrespective of whether they have formal lessons or not - then their opportunities, and in most cases their needs, are different from those learners who are exposed to another language only in a classroom. Immigrants often feel they should quickly acquire the dominant language of their new country or region, and in doing so may use their first language s , or language s of origin, very little. Some immigrants deliberately avoid speaking their first language s to their children in order to facilitate their acquisition of the dominant language in the new environment.
Nonetheless, the first language is psychologically important for the first generation of immigrants because they first developed as children through that language. It also is perceived as important to subsequent generations as a symbol of their origins and identities. These are terms used almost exclusively to refer to the languages of ethnic or religious minorities , although they could equally be used for socially dominant languages. The distinction is ultimately arbitrary since there are few if any regions of Europe where languages currently spoken did not arrive from other regions at some point in the past, as a consequence of migration.
However migration in the second half of the twentieth century has been of such a kind that speakers of languages newly arrived in a country are often spread throughout a society. In contrast, migration in the past, and changes to political frontiers as a consequence of war, led to speakers of languages not dominant in a society usually being located in the same geographical region.
This has significance for the ease of provision of education in minority languages. When all the learners are in the same region, education can be provided in cost-effective ways. For learners who wish to maintain their heritage languages but who are spread throughout a society in relatively small numbers, there is a need for higher per capita spending and consequently greater political commitment on the part of those in power.
Thus speakers of French and Italian can usually understand each other to some degree, as can speakers of Danish and Norwegian, but not Danish and Finnish since the latter is of a different family. The degree of understanding depends on a number of factors, such as the topic of conversation or correspondence, the ways in which the participants make efforts to help their listeners, the speed and clarity of pronunciation, and the awareness the participants in the conversation have of where potential difficulties lie and how to find other ways of expressing themselves.
The degree of intercomprehension is increased in reading the written language since readers can take their own time to reflect on what they might not fully understand, to use dictionaries or grammars, to consider possible related terms in their own language, but this too requires a degree of awareness of the relationships between languages which can be enhanced by teaching.
Irrespective of such linguistic proximities, the least costly forms of communication are those which are based on mutual comprehension, where each person speaks his or her first language and understands the language of the other. This term refers to the language in which the teaching of other subjects is carried out in schools and universities.
Usually, the dominant language of a society is used but languages of indigenous or immigrant minorities may be used. This gives status to the languages and ensures that those who speak them as their first language also become literate in their first language. It is widely agreed that children prosper better in education if their first years of schooling and in particular their acquisition of literacy takes place in their first language even if this is not the dominant language of a society.
This is advanced as a justification for the use of minority languages as media of instruction in the early years of schooling. Nonetheless, there have long existed education programmes where, from the beginning of schooling, children have been instructed in a language other than their first. The purpose of these programmes is to ensure more efficient acquisition of a second or foreign language.
In situations where speakers of a minority language are in similar situations of immersion in the dominant language of a society, their first language is not supported by their environment and they often lose or do not develop in their first language. In other countries, a medium of instruction other than the first language is introduced later, in secondary education, either to teach one or two subjects, or to teach the whole curriculum. The former is for example to be found in Germany and the latter in Bulgaria.
The purpose of these programmes is to enhance the effectiveness of foreign language learning by greater exposure to and increased use of the language in a greater variety of ways. The status of minority does not necessarily refer to numbers of speakers but to the rights and privileges of groups in society, their right to educational institutions, to representation before the law, to access to certain types of employment, to their own mass media.
Many such groups attach very great importance to the use and maintenance of their language for use in society. In particular, they demand the use of their language as a medium of instruction in their own schools and universities, and as a medium of transactions in social institutions such as courts of law, banks and the media. It is popularly believed, and also argued by some scientists, that someone whose native language is X has an authority over learners of X as a foreign or second language.
This idea has been strongly challenged in recent years. More explicit descriptions of levels of competence have been defined independently of the native speaker, for example in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. In some cases a language which is not the first language of any group in a country is given official status, particularly in former colonies of Western states. Consciously or unconsciously, people vary their language according to the situation, the topic, the people with whom they are interacting, i. They speak or write in more and less formal ways, in ways which are more or less close to the standard language norms determined for a national or official language.
Secondly, people of a particular geographical area or a particular social group may have a variation on the standard language which they all use, particularly when speaking. They have different word forms, different grammar, and different habits of speech. This reflects their sense of belonging to an area or group and the variety is shared by all the speakers, i.
It is also possible to speak the standard language with an accent which varies from that deemed to be standard, without varying in other respects, e. Varieties can be described independently as languages in themselves with no reference to the formal standard language. The distinction between a dialect and a language is not linguistic but a consequence of whether a dialect is deemed to be the national or official language of a country.
A dialect can, through historical events and changes of sovereignty for example, be deemed to be the language of a newly formed state. This term refers to a language which is widely spoken in a particular geographical area even though another language might be deemed the official language, or is a language of wider communication on an international level. In the Middle Ages Latin, used throughout Europe for international communication, was contrasted with the vernacular languages spoken in the different countries. Unless there are congenital defects or lack of exposure to a language, all children learn to speak a language as a natural part of their development, with some help from their parents or others taking care of them.
The acquisition of the ability to write is however not natural and needs to be taught. The ability to write requires quite different capacities from those of speaking and usually includes the ability to create texts of specific genres according to specific rules and expectations. Writing is then used as one of the indicators of successful education and as a means of selecting people for further education, employment and the like.
For learners of a further language at a later point in time, the acquisition of the spoken language is different from the process of acquisition of their first language, and does not happen with the same spontaneity. Instruction of some kind is often required. The acquisition of the written language for such learners is more similar to the acquisition of the written version of their first language and requires similar efforts.
It is therefore clear that formal education has a particular role to play in the teaching of writing in any language, and secondly that the acquisition of the written version of a foreign or second language involves different processes from those involved in the acquisition of the spoken language. It is thus possible that some learners will be more successful in spoken than written language and vice versa.
This needs to be taken into account in determining the aims of foreign or second language teaching and in the integration of language education policies to cover the whole linguistic repertoire - first, second and foreign languages - a learner develops throughout life. Sign languages are languages which are expressed primarily through the medium of gestures and understood visually. They use movements of the hands but also of other parts of the body such as the eyes, mouth, head and shoulders.
They have the same general characteristics of human language as spoken languages. Particular sign languages, like spoken languages, are named in relation to their geographic location, but again like spoken languages are not necessarily limited to a specific location. Sign languages used by communities of people who are deaf are the most well known, even though others exist.
Communities of deaf people, like other communities, share a language, common life experiences and cultural traditions, and a common sense of identity. Teacher training for deaf people to learn to teach their language to the hearing exists in some countries. A language which is used to communicate between people with different native languages is called a lingua franca.trengiosmokammu.cf/1831.php
Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History (K. Braunmüller and G. Ferraresi)
The term originates from a language used in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages among traders. In this case, the language was based on a combination of French and Italian, with Greek and Arabic elements. In other cases, one existing language is used. The reach of a lingua franca can range from its use in an institution, where there are speakers of several languages speaking the lingua franca, to a major geographical region e. Swahili in eastern and central Africa or an international use.
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The international use is currently dominated by English with other languages also playing this role. Usually a lingua franca is a natural language, but simplified natural languages, called pidgins, or artificial languages, have also been used as a lingua franca. Natural linguae francae are usually the languages of dominant communities. Part 3 of this Guide provides brief explanations of the options available for implementing policies with purposes of promoting linguistic diversity and plurilingualism. Chapter 5 takes further the issues discussed in Chapters 3 and 4, where environmental factors which need to be considered were presented, and presents an overview of the ways in which favourable conditions for the promotion of plurilingualism and policies for plurilingualism can be identified and encouraged.
In earlier chapters, it was emphasised that the obstacles to successful implementation of policies are political lack of public and political engagement , social mis-perceptions and stereotypes as well as technical organisation of curricula, supply of teachers etc. It is therefore necessary to create favourable conditions for the implementation of policies which are both internal to education systems and in the external context.
This chapter discusses the creation of favourable conditions in more detail by listing the factors which need to be considered. The relative importance of factors varies from one situation to another and there are no prescriptions here of priorities or actions. These are decisions to be taken by policy planners for their own situation. Since the creation of favourable social conditions for language learning depends in part on the education of the population about language learning, it is valuable to recall first the justifications and rationales for policies for plurilingualism as these can be used in the educational process:.
These rationales are supported by resolutions and recommendations of the Council of Europe and its Member States. Plurilingualism is realised in different forms in different situations but is relevant for all European states whatever degree of multilingualism they embody. Plurilingualism is a condition for the evolution of societies and a constituent of that evolution.
The external factors which impinge on the implementation of policies include the following:. Response to such factors might include:. The implementation of policies can be impeded by conscious and unconscious acts on the part of administrators, heads of institutions and those in charge of budgets. It can equally be impeded by the preconceptions and prejudices of language specialists including teachers, who for example see advantage in the continuing separation of languages in curricula. In addition to general perceptions listed above which such people might share, the following technical factors need to be considered and discussed, as was explained in earlier chapters:.
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The lack of understanding of the nature of language learning and teaching is widespread among those responsible for the implementation of policies, as it is among the wider population. Any policy developed to promote plurilingualism needs to be accompanied by information and a process of education of those involved in policy issues if it is not to be undermined by ignorance of the conditions in which language learning can take place.
It must also be recognised that there are many mis-apprehensions in the teaching profession - beliefs that languages should be taught separately and in competition with each other, that the only valuable goal is near-native competence, for example - which are impediments to implementation, and a programme of education for teachers is often as necessary as one for non-language specialists.
Responses to these factors might include the following:. Plurilingualism in its various guises is characterised by:. The purposes of plurilingual education may be perceived in a variety of ways:. Social demand is often focused on language learning for commercial and leisure purposes, and in particular on English for these purposes. Policies and their implementation need to take account of and integrate social demand with other purposes, designing curricula and programmes of content accordingly, and this is then realised in the definition of objectives for plurilingual education.
The first phase of policy implementation thus involves the formulation of precise objectives: what kind of plurilingualism is to be the target, in the first instance. The objectives need to take into account the geo-political situation: which languages are present in the territory in question, which languages are present on its borders, what social and economic ambitions does the polity have for the future.
If this formulation is to be realistic, then the potential of the current education system, both formal and informal, needs to be taken into account: which languages are already present, which ones could be introduced most efficiently, which teaching methods, modes of assessment and certification already exist and have potential in the development of plurilingualism, which institutions could be implicated in implementation. Linguistic and learning objectives can be defined with the aid of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
The plurilingual individual will have a number of languages each at different levels of achievement. The recognition of this achievement is facilitated by the use of the European Language Portfolio. Language education policies will therefore need to provide opportunities for developing plurilingualism through the diversification of languages offered. This might include. Modifications can thus be undertaken horizontally within sectors and vertically from one sector to another.
Such languages are an asset for the whole of Europe. A joint undertaking In Europe, sharing languages means not only spreading some languages from the migrants to the general community. It entails sharing the responsibility for multilingualism, including language maintenance. This should be an international undertaking cf. Some governments such as that of Italy have long taken responsibility for their languages as foreign languages and as immigrant languages elsewhere Totaro-Gnvois It should be generally understood that caring for the use of your language as a minority language in a different country is part of looking after your national language in an explicit or implicit language policy.
Treating minorities in your country as an asset should be the first step towards strengthening your own language and its speakers where they are in a minority situation see above. But it is just as important for this to be considered part of a cooperative undertaking in the interests of a multilingual Europe. Moreover, pluralist language policies are particularly successful if they also address the interests of the majority language, as became apparent in the first Australian National Policy on Languages Lo Bianco ; see Clyne I would therefore find it desirable for all EU countries to contribute a certain percentage of their GDP to the implementation of a collaborative pluralist European language policy Clyne This could form a basis for regional language policies in other parts of the world.
Such a policy should underlie measures by member nations. The European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages contains many sound principles intended to protect stable ethnolinguistic minorities, which could be extended to promote multilingual communication. Examples are provision of education, public information, media, aged care, and crossborder communication in the minority language all being important aspects of language maintenance and of reversing language shift Fishman However, the Charter would have to be extended to address immigrant groups and immigrant languages, which in many countries are demographically far more significant than regional and minority languages.
It may, of course, not be possible to give equal treatment to all languages in all domains but provision of this kind is not as difficult as it may sound. Some bilingual education should be striven for, especially two-way programs in which students with the national language and those with the community language as L1 can develop an academic competence in one anothers languages.
If curricula could be developed cooperatively, this activity would be rationalized across national boundaries. The Australian experience shows that for public notices, language. This is separate from any instruction provided by ethnic communities themselves. Universities have an important role to play since they provide a link with schools in two ways advancing the language proficiency and cultural competence of the students beyond what they have gained by the end of secondary school, and offering programs to prepare people for teacher training.
We have been discussing measures promoting multilingual communication so far in the Australian and European contexts. However, they may have wider applicability, for instance in the Asia-Pacific region. This is a richly diverse region with many existing multilinguals, who have as L1 a minority language or a regional language fangyan designated as a dialect. The learning of some of these languages should be introduced in the schools of these countries. How will it work in practice? One of the challenges posed by the extension of the language menu in schools to include immigrant languages is programs with children of different degrees of home background or no background in the target language.
Students with a home background and some experience in the country of origin of formal education through the language as a medium of instruction. Students with an active home background in the language and no formal instruction prior to secondary school.
Students with an active home background in a variety of the language but not in the standard language, in which classes are conducted with or without formal instruction in the language here or elsewhere. Examples are Cantonese, or the various national varieties of spoken Arabic. Students with a passive home background in such a language. Students with no home background in the language but formal instruction in the language at primary school. Third language learners, whom we treat as a separate subgroup in our study.
Students with a passive family background in a variety of the language and no formal instruction in the standard language prior to secondary school. Students with no home background and no prior knowledge of the language. Such diversity entails tailoring curricula to meet the needs of different groups, perhaps with the help of new technologies and appropriate assessment systems so that all can develop their language potential to the fullest. The elderly, in particular, tend to be keen to communicate with young people, and young people can improve their knowledge of the target language by assisting in the integration of new waves of refugees and immigrants.
This could create communicative need, input, and output opportunities for those wishing to develop their competence in the language. It is. Ethnic communities can become havens of the use of the minority language in a society in which the thrust is in the direction of monolingualism, thereby also assisting cross-cultural communication and understanding. The role of institutions It is not only different nations but also different institutions within and across nations which should play a part in the joint undertaking to facilitate and promote multilingual communication.
I would like now to enumerate some of the tasks and functions these different institutions could take on:. Role of governments Governments can assist in the maintenance and development of multilingualism in a number of ways.
Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism 2 : Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism : Universität Hamburg
They should: 1. Develop a national languages policy and, between them, a regional e. European or South-East Asian language policy around goals such as: a. Language maintenance and development; b. Second language acquisition of the national language, immigrant languages, and other languages; c. Provision of services in relevant immigrant languages. Undertake for each nation to contribute an agreed percentage of its GDP to implement the policy within its borders and to cooperate with other nations in more general projects, including making their own language more accessible abroad.
Be charged with the implementation of the policy within its borders. Collect data on the use of languages within their nation. Support rhetorically and financially the sharing of languages within and beyond the borders. Promote awareness of the importance of languages and cross cultural communication within institutions of education, business and industry, the public service, and the media, and the utilization and rewarding of multilingual human resources in these institutions.
Constantly monitor that the implementation of the policy is being adequately implemented, involving linguistic minorities and experts as well as professional and other interest groups in this. Cooperatively develop schemes for the pooling of resources in languages, including joint curriculum development and teacher training.
Make available tax relief for companies with multilingual web sites. Develop multilateral incentive schemes for EU officials to be proficient in more European languages and for ASEAN officials to be proficient in more languages of the region. Role of ethnic communities 1. To see themselves as an important link between generations in the transmission of community languages see above and between speakers of their community language and those in the wider community wishing to acquire that language.
To try to create new uses of the community language which will be relevant to the next generations. To provide classes outside normal school hours within the mainstream school system in languages that cannot be catered for in regular day schools. To facilitate links with young people in the country of origin.
To acquaint themselves and their parents and grandparents in their ethnolinguistic group with the value and feasibility of, and appropriate approaches to raising children in more than one language. Role of education systems 1. To work together to produce curricula and materials for the teaching of students from the full range of backgrounds and those learning it formally as a second language. To develop bilingual education programs in a range of languages at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Role of universities Universities provide the link between secondary schools and professions such as teaching.
Offer a range of languages to enable students to advance beyond their proficiency level and knowledge at the end of secondary school. Offer a range of languages to facilitate the training of well-prepared teachers. Conduct research that is relevant to the better understanding of bi- and multilingual communication, the interdependence of languages in the acquisition and development process, and the reactivation of language skills which have not recently been drawn upon. Summary and conclusions This paper has developed a co-operative approach to the maintenance and spread of multilingualism which would empower minorities and develop the linguistic potential of the next generations of both the majority and the minorities.
It is argued that multilingual communication is advantageous for individuals, families, and nations and attempted to dispel negative myths and misconceptions about multilingualism. The paper has drawn attention to existing widespread multilingualism resulting from migration and advanced the position that community languages can form a basis for more multilingual nations. Ways are suggested for governments to co-operate in this and for different institutions within a nation to play a role.
Some of the research informing this paper was financed by a grant from the Australian Research Council. The national language but spoken at home by only a small proportion of the population. Most European languages do not have an equivalent. Providing they are of interest to young people.
This term, devised by Agar , is useful because it stresses the inseparability of language and cultural styles. Developing multilingual communication. Drawing on the report of the Australian Senate Committee investigating the need for a National Policy on Languages and the actual policy, Lo Bianco In some federated political entities, there may have to be a role for the states.
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Introduction1 Although there is a growing body of literature on the topic, many aspects of interpreting in medical settings are still like the unchartered territory on a map. The reason for this is not a lack of scholarly interest, but rather the difficulty of collecting and analyzing discourse data in medical institutions. Thus, while we already know a bit about different types of interpreter training and interpreting services or techniques on the one hand, and about the socio-political matters regarding immigration, culture and medicine on the other, we still know little about how communication operates when doctors and patients do not speak the same language and, therefore, need the help of a third, bilingual person.
The following article summarizes several studies that have been carried out during the last three years within the project Dolmetschen im Krankenhaus Interpreting in Hospitals at the Sonderforschungsbereich Mehrsprachigkeit Research Center on Multilingualism at the University of Hamburg. The aim of the project was to investigate those aspects of interpreting in hospitals that could not be investigated in detail by referring to anecdotal evidence or interviews.
We wanted to know whether bilingual staff members or relatives of the patient are able to identify features of discourse that are related to the institutional framework of doctor-patient-communication. We also looked at how they manage to bring these across in the target language. Regarding the methodology, which consisted of a collection of authentic data and analysis of transcriptions, as well as a combination of qualitative and quantitative research, our approach is similar to earlier studies concern-. The difference, however, lies in the fact that we focused our analysis not on the interactional organization of interpreter-mediated talk, but on the achievement of communicative purposes.
Our assumption was that even linguistically skilled individuals, i. This approach picks up on Rehbeins observations concerning qualitative changes caused by omissions and additions of ad hoc-interpreters, and it follows Bhrig and Rehbeins work on different realizations of speech actions in simultaneous interpreting, consecutive interpreting, and literal translation.
Although data were collected in different settings, most studies presented in what follows refer to interpretermediated discourse in briefings for informed consent, i. Our analysis is mainly based on transcriptions of tape-recorded mono- and bilingual talk between doctors and patients. The languages investigated in the project were German, Turkish, and Portuguese.
Turkish and Portuguese were chosen because these languages are typologically different and because both communities in Hamburg differ in size and cultural background. We made the attempt to gather data in hospitals in Germany, Portugal, and Turkey, but it was not possible to tape-record briefings for informed consent in Turkey. In addition to transcribed audio data, we conducted interviews with hospital employees and reviewed non-linguistic literature so as to achieve a better understanding of communicative practices in the hospitals where our data came from.
In terms of Mllers distinction between transparent and opaque bilingual constellations, parts of the sample are transparent, rather than opaque. In other words, the language barrier in the interpreter-mediated interactions was not always totally impermeable. Rather, participants, namely the patients, were in many cases able to communicate to a certain degree in both languages: German and Turkish or Portuguese.
Therefore, the bilingual interactions were in many cases influenced by the fact that German and the respective native language of the patients were used and so the need for in-. In some cases doctors addressed patients directly in German during entire sections of the discourse without resorting to the bilingual staff members or relatives who were present. This article is based on a sample from our data consisting of twenty-four briefings for informed consent.
Six are monolingual interactions in either German with German patients or Portuguese recorded in Portugal with Portuguese patients. Eighteen interpreted interactions German-Portuguese and German-Turkish took place in hospitals in Hamburg and were mediated by ad hoc-interpreters nursing staff or relatives of the patient. In seven of the eighteen multilingual recordings, the interpreters were relatives of the patient. In all other cases, members of the nursing staff participated as interpreters in the interaction.
Although the sample comprises interactions carried out in three languages, the transcripts presented in this article will only be in German and Portuguese. The interpreters were mostly younger individuals of an immigrant background who were either born in Germany or came to Germany during their childhood. The patients, on the other hand, were usually elderly individuals who generally have lived in Germany for more than ten years and have their permanent residence in Germany. The doctors who carried out the briefings are specialists for internal medicine, anesthesia, or surgery and do not speak Turkish or Portuguese.
However, two doctors in this sample spoke a bit of Spanish and Turkish, which enabled them to understand small parts of the interpreted discourse or to address patients i. All interactions were tape-recorded in units for internal medicine, surgery, or anesthesia. The planned medical procedures were mainly standard diagnostic or therapeutic methods gastroscopy, broncoscopy, bone marrow puncture, resection of gallbladder, etc. Methodology As we are primarily concerned with the impact of interpreting on the achievement of institutional purposes, we first had to identify the purposes of briefings for informed consent.
Secondly, we wished to find out which linguistic means are relevant for the achievement of these purposes. Thirdly, we had to look at how these relevant linguistic expressions are handled by ad hoc-interpreters. In an action-theoretical approach to language and communication Rehbein , the connection between the context and the use of a language is systematically taken into account by referring to the specific pre- and post-history of a communicative event, structures of the societal reality, the subjective and objective possibilities of the actors, their stocks of knowledge, and, finally, the specific and systematic changes caused by speech actions.
These systematically occurring changes or purposes are, in this interpretation, not individually designed goals, but rather societal parameters that allow actors to change reality along the lines of socially established action systems speech action patterns. In other words, goals may vary among individuals, but purposes do not, as they are not expressions of personal needs, but rather the accomplishment of personal needs in a socially determined way. In institutional settings, shorter linguistic forms or patterns like questionanswer, reporting, announcing, or describing constitute institutional types of discourse, which themselves integrate different forms of action.
Furthermore, Ehlich and Rehbeins analysis of communication in schools has shown that purposes of speech actions in institutions are often shaped by specific agent-client constellations, which lead to certain aberrations in the realization of speech action patterns. For example, teachers frequently use a question-answer pattern to direct lessons.
However, the systematic difference from ordinary communication outside of schools is that within schools the one who asks questions the teacher knows the answer, whereas the one who does the answering the student knows, in most cases, only parts of it. Thus, the purpose of the question-answer pattern, to instantiate a transfer of knowledge from someone who knows to someone who does not, is systematically mis used to focus the students attention on the teachers plan.
Sarangi takes context into account by distinguishing between settings or activity types on the one hand, and discourse types or forms of talk on the other. He points out that the link between the former and the latter is not always straightforward. For ex-. In order to recognize the specific impact institutional purposes have on everyday speech action patterns, it is, from our point of view, necessary to reconstruct the purpose of institutional discourse types by comparing various examples of the same type with each other and with linguistic data from ordinary communication outside the institution.
In addition, these comparisons and analyses of speech action patterns need to be corroborated by research from other disciplines on the same topic. In the case of briefings for informed consent it was necessary to look at sociological research on informed consent and the informational needs of patients, as well as literature on legal aspects of the doctor-patient relationship and legal norms governing the process of medical treatment i.
Raspe ; Gei Identifying the building blocks of briefings for informed consent via their communicative purpose s allows us to separate relevant features of discourse from superficial discursive similarities or dissimilarities, as well as from accidental evidence. Furthermore, the notion of communicative purpose establishes a tertium comparationis for the analysis of speech actions carried out in different languages because it does not relate solely to the linguistic surface or form, but has, rather, a reconstructive-hermeneutic quality see Rehbein or Bhrig forthcoming, for a detailed discussion.
The identification of constitutive speech actions further enables us to focus the analysis on certain sections of discourse and certain linguistic expressions. In doing so, the approach also allows the corroboration of qualitative findings by quantitative methods. In the following section, we will look at the realization of speech action patterns in source and target language discourse and will address the questions of if and how interpreters achieve or fail to achieve functional equivalence of linguistic means in the target language.
From this view, the purpose of informing the patient is to enhance the patients autonomy and to guarantee the patients self-determination of medical pro-. Terms like autonomy and self-determination clearly indicate that the concept of informed consent is strongly determined by legal norms and ethical considerations, rather than medical ones. Empirical studies of briefings for informed consent reveal that there is a gap between the normative concept and the actual performance of participants. In particular, the communication of risks depends on the doctors understanding of which information is appropriate for a specific patient in a given institutional context Meyer , a.
Moreover, an important medical reason for a briefing seems to be the preparation of the patient for future action. This action the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure is in many cases a standard routine for employees of the hospital, but unfamiliar to the patient Meyer As has already been shown in earlier studies, briefings are characterized by a repetitive and somehow generic or standardized course of action.
They are usually composed of an announcement of the procedure, which then is expanded by descriptions, elucidations or explanations of its various aspects Biel ; Mann ; Krafft ; Meyer After announcing and describing the procedure, doctors should refer to possible complications, but they do not do so in all cases.
If complications are mentioned, doctors usually also add information about the frequency and seriousness of complications. The last and pivotal step is the closure of the briefing and the signing of the consent form. The patients consent has to be documented in written form in order to prove that authorization has been given before the treatment has been carried out. This reduces the risk of litigation for the doctor. The prototypical course of the briefing for informed consent announcing, describing, pointing out risks to the patient, and letting the patient sign the form integrates legal and medical requirements.
The legal requirement is that the patients autonomy is respected by giving him or her the hypothetical option to say no. The medical requirement is that the patient be enabled to actively cooperate in the preparation and carrying out of the planned procedure. The patients consent, thus, refers to different communicative outcomes: the fulfillment of legal norms and, at the same time, the establishment of common ground regarding future cooperation see Fig.
The medical procedure is part of a larger, all-encompassing plan for medical action and the patients decision-making potentially jeopardizes the carrying out of the plan at this stage. If the patient rejects a proposed treatment or method, the medical staff has to restart the whole process of planning and checking for alternative treatments.
We may therefore deduce that doctors do not necessarily adopt an impartial stance regarding the patients decision-. Legal purpose: the patient gives consent in spite of his or her knowledge of medical risks Phase I. Figure 1. Integration of legal and medical purposes in briefings for infirmed consent adapted from Meyer Rather, the purpose of briefings seems to be that the patient consents to the planned diagnostic or therapeutic procedure, although he or she has been informed about the possible complications that this procedure might entail.
This is further supported by the fact that in our data doctors characterize complications mainly as infrequent and non-serious. The relevance of possible negative outcomes is downplayed so as to ensure the patients affirmative decision. Against the background of this brief discussion of the communicative purpose s of briefings for informed consent, we will, in the following segment, analyze specific sections of the discourse data.
In particular, we will look at how ad hoc interpreters handle constitutive linguistic elements in announcements, descriptions, and the pointing out of complications to the patient. Announcing the medical procedure According to Rehbeins analysis, the purpose of announcing something to someone is the organization of joint action and the establishment of a common focus. Announcements are made if two parties are interacting with each other and one party knows about an action that is relevant to the joint action process, but this action is not evident to the other party. Announcements consist prototypically of a certain propositional matrix ibid.
In our data, the impact of interpreting on the achievement of communicative purposes in announcements can be observed with regard to modal expressions and medical terms. In the example 1 below, an excerpt from a transcript, a German doctor for internal medicine DOC talks to a Portuguese housewife about an invasive diagnostic method used to survey bile ducts. The interpreter INT is her seventeen-year old daughter who grew up in Germany. We want to uuhm make an attempt to display the bile ducts a little bit better. INT: Eles vo fazer a mesma coisa como fizeram da outra vez.
They will do the same thing as they did the other time. In the example 1 above, the use of different pronouns wir we vs. However, the changes regarding modal constructions wir wollen we want to vs. Modal verbs As has been pointed out in the previous sections, the importance of modality in announcements of briefings for informed consent is not negligible, as the patients consent cannot be taken for granted by the doctor. Therefore, doctors in our data frequently use the German modal wollen want to or similar constructions.
Related Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History (Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism)
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