Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)


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Bucheli and coworkers investigated the occurrence and behavior of three groups groups of herbicides triazines, acetamides, and phenoxy acids in roof runoff. Their analytical approach involved concentration on GCB, followed by sequential elution of the neutral and acidic fractions and derivatization of the acidic fraction with diazomethane. Recoveries were 84 percent or better. Mecoprop, which occurs in two enantiomeric forms, was separated with a fused silica capillary column.

Crescenzi et al. This method was also used to. Of greatest interest have been the linear alcohol polyethoxylates AE , alkyl phenol polyethoxylates, and the linear alkyl sulfonates. Marcomini and Pojana describe an approach to simultaneously characterize both neutral and carboxylated AE biointermediates using liquid chromatography. Depending on the type of sample, to 1,ml aliquots are used.

The approach is based on SPE using 0. The reported advantage of GCB is that it exhibits properties of reversed-phase sorbents and cation exchange resins. Using elutions of increasing strength, analyte fractions of increasing acidity are obtained. Because of the lack of chromophores, the analytes were converted into derivatives that could be analyzed using HPLC. To take advantage of the great sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescence detector, Marcomini and Pojana utilize a fluorescent derivatizing agents. The authors note that the two derivatizing agents are highly complementary in terms of the attainable separations by reversed-phase HPLC.

The carboxylated metabolites carboxylated PEG and carboxylated AE are derivatized using 9-chloromethyl anthracene and separated using normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC. Di Corcia et al. These compounds were initially captured by utilizing cartridge SPE and then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography.

This compound class includes chemically diverse compounds that are used as additives in plastic or concrete, foundry mold, as tanning agents. Of recent interest here are the aromatic sulfonates Suter et al. Altenbach and Giger used SPE and ion-pair chromatography combined with UV absorption and fluorescence detection to detect aromatic sulfonates in a landfill leachate.

Surer et al. Taste and odor compounds include relatively simple compounds such as toluene, the xylenes, geosmin, disulfides, and low molecular weight aldehydes Bruchet and Hochereau, Odor-thresholds are typically at the nanogram per liter level or below. Most odorous compounds are volatile and although there are exceptions, including chlorophenol and triiodomethane. Solvent-less procedures are important for the detection of highly volatile compounds that would elute within the window of the solvent.

Bruchet and Hochereau note that SPE methods have found limited applications owing to background problems,. The human nose is very sensitive, and for many taste and odor compounds the sensitivity of available analytical techniques is insufficient to identify the odor-causing compound. Efforts are under way to increase the sensitivity of analytical techniques. Disinfection byproducts DBPs are primarily a drinking water issue. However, because effluents are often chlorinated before discharge, halogenated disinfection byproducts can reach surface waters and groundwater on discharge.

Church et al. Detection limits were reported as 0. The size of the analytical window is expanding but still limits our ability to characterize organics in water. The second major limitation is the lack of reference spectra and reference compounds. Even if detected, contaminants often cannot be identified.

The target concentrations for trace organics are being pushed from the microgram to the nanograms per liter range. The trend to lower detection limits is driven by the low MCLs and the potency of some endocrin disruptors. As a consequence, sample preparation techniques require new levels of refinement. The contaminants that are analyzed include more and more reactive contaminants, contaminants that interact with matrix or sediment components by complexation or other chemical-bonding mechanisms.

Chemical speciation is an increasingly important consideration in water quality analysis. Aiken, G. McKnight, R. Wershaw, and P.

Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)

MacCarthy, eds. Altenbach, B. Determination of benzenesulfonates and naphthalenesulfonates in wastewater by solid phase extraction with graphitized carbon-black and ion pair liquid chromatography with UV detection.


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Analytical Chemistry Angelino, S. Maurino, C. Minero, E. Pelizzetti, and M. Improved procedure for n -hexyl hydrophilic compounds in water by direct derivatization of highly hydrophilic substances directly in water-hydroxyaminic compounds. Journal of Chromatography Banoub, J. Martin, H. Hodder, G. Sheppard, and S. Analusis Magazine Barbash, J. Ann Arbor, Mich. Bruchet, A. Analysis of trace compounds responsible for tastes and odors in drinking water.

Analusis Maganzine Bucheli, T. Gruebler, S. Mueller, and R. Simultaneous determination of neutral and acidic pesticides in natural water at the low nanogram per liter range. Burlingame, A. Boyd, and S. Mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry RR. Buser, H. Poiger, and M. Occurrence and fate of the pharmaceutical drug diclophenac in surface waters: Rapid photodegradation in a lake.

Environmental Science and Technology Cancilla, D. Que Hee. O- 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorophenyl methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride: A versatile reagent for the determination of carbonyl-containing compounds. Christman, R. Norwood, D. Millington, J. Johnson, and A. Identity and yields of major halogenated products of aquatic fulvic acid chlorination.

Church, C. Isabelle, J. Pankcow, D. Rose, and P. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water. Crescenzi, C. Di Corcia, E. Guerriero, and R. Development of a multiresidue method for analyzing pesticide traces in water based on solid-phase. Di Corcia, A.

Marcomini, and R. Samperi, and A. Monitoring aromatic surfactants and their aromatic surfactants and their biodegradation intermediates in raw and treated sewage by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. Drozd, J. Chemical Derivatization in Gas Chromatography. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Fujita, Y. Ding, and M. Identification of wastewater DOC characteristics in reclaimed wastewater and recharged groundwater.

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Water Environment Research Glaze, W. A unified approach to the analysis of polar organic by-products of oxidation in aqueous matrices. Water Research Gonzalez-Maze, E. Honing, D. Barcelo, and A. Hartman, A. Alder, T. Keller, and R. Identification of fluoroquinoline antibiotics as the main source of umuC genotoxicity in native hospital wastewater.

Verhalten von Arzneimittelrückständen bei der Abwasserreinigung

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Hayes, M. MacCarthy, R. Malcolm, and R. Swift, eds. Heberer, T. Determination of clofibric acid and N - phenylsufonyl -sarcosine in sewage, river and drinking water. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry.

Knapp, D. R Other hormones, including testosterone and estrone, were not measured. Heberer and Stan reported on a procedure for analyzing clofibric acid and N - phenylsufonyl -sarcosine. Clofibiric acid 2- 4- -chlorophenoxymethyl propionic acid is the metabolite of several blood lipid-regulating drugs clofibrate, etofyllincolfibrate, etofibrate. Clofibiric acid was detected in wastewater effluents in the s by several investigators in raw and treated sewage. Two and one-half milliliters of ethanol were used to elute the analytes from the SPE cartridge.

For derivatization, pentafluorobenzoyl bromide is used with triethylamine as the catalyst. Concentrations of clofibric acid artificially recharged. Occurrence of these compounds in European rivers is consistent with the widespread use of these compounds. In another series of studies, Stem and Heberer screened sewage, surface, groundwater, and drinking water for drug and drug metabolites. The observed concentrations in sewage and surface concentrations were as high as 4.

In a groundwater well used by a drinking water treatment plant, for example, maximum concentrations of clofibiric acid where found to be 7. Buser et al. Environmental contamination with pesticides remains an important topic in environmental chemistry Barbash and Resek, The classes of chemicals used as pesticides are expanding, and the chemical structures of the chemicals are increasing in complexity, especially when compared to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides used during the s and s.

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Banoub et al. Bucheli and coworkers investigated the occurrence and behavior of three groups groups of herbicides triazines, acetamides, and phenoxy acids in roof runoff. Their analytical approach involved concentration on GCB, followed by sequential elution of the neutral and acidic fractions and derivatization of the acidic fraction with diazomethane. Recoveries were 84 percent or better.

Mecoprop, which occurs in two enantiomeric forms, was separated with a fused silica capillary column. Crescenzi et al. This method was also used to. Of greatest interest have been the linear alcohol polyethoxylates AE , alkyl phenol polyethoxylates, and the linear alkyl sulfonates. Marcomini and Pojana describe an approach to simultaneously characterize both neutral and carboxylated AE biointermediates using liquid chromatography. Depending on the type of sample, to 1,ml aliquots are used.

The approach is based on SPE using 0. The reported advantage of GCB is that it exhibits properties of reversed-phase sorbents and cation exchange resins. Using elutions of increasing strength, analyte fractions of increasing acidity are obtained. Because of the lack of chromophores, the analytes were converted into derivatives that could be analyzed using HPLC. To take advantage of the great sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescence detector, Marcomini and Pojana utilize a fluorescent derivatizing agents.

The authors note that the two derivatizing agents are highly complementary in terms of the attainable separations by reversed-phase HPLC. The carboxylated metabolites carboxylated PEG and carboxylated AE are derivatized using 9-chloromethyl anthracene and separated using normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC.

Di Corcia et al. These compounds were initially captured by utilizing cartridge SPE and then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography. This compound class includes chemically diverse compounds that are used as additives in plastic or concrete, foundry mold, as tanning agents. Of recent interest here are the aromatic sulfonates Suter et al.

Altenbach and Giger used SPE and ion-pair chromatography combined with UV absorption and fluorescence detection to detect aromatic sulfonates in a landfill leachate. Surer et al. Taste and odor compounds include relatively simple compounds such as toluene, the xylenes, geosmin, disulfides, and low molecular weight aldehydes Bruchet and Hochereau, Odor-thresholds are typically at the nanogram per liter level or below. Most odorous compounds are volatile and although there are exceptions, including chlorophenol and triiodomethane.

Solvent-less procedures are important for the detection of highly volatile compounds that would elute within the window of the solvent. Bruchet and Hochereau note that SPE methods have found limited applications owing to background problems,. The human nose is very sensitive, and for many taste and odor compounds the sensitivity of available analytical techniques is insufficient to identify the odor-causing compound. Efforts are under way to increase the sensitivity of analytical techniques.

Disinfection byproducts DBPs are primarily a drinking water issue.

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However, because effluents are often chlorinated before discharge, halogenated disinfection byproducts can reach surface waters and groundwater on discharge. Church et al. Detection limits were reported as 0. The size of the analytical window is expanding but still limits our ability to characterize organics in water. The second major limitation is the lack of reference spectra and reference compounds.

Even if detected, contaminants often cannot be identified. The target concentrations for trace organics are being pushed from the microgram to the nanograms per liter range. The trend to lower detection limits is driven by the low MCLs and the potency of some endocrin disruptors. As a consequence, sample preparation techniques require new levels of refinement. The contaminants that are analyzed include more and more reactive contaminants, contaminants that interact with matrix or sediment components by complexation or other chemical-bonding mechanisms.

Chemical speciation is an increasingly important consideration in water quality analysis. Aiken, G. McKnight, R. Wershaw, and P. MacCarthy, eds. Altenbach, B. Determination of benzenesulfonates and naphthalenesulfonates in wastewater by solid phase extraction with graphitized carbon-black and ion pair liquid chromatography with UV detection.

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Analytical Chemistry Angelino, S. Maurino, C. Minero, E. Pelizzetti, and M. Improved procedure for n -hexyl hydrophilic compounds in water by direct derivatization of highly hydrophilic substances directly in water-hydroxyaminic compounds. Journal of Chromatography Banoub, J.

Martin, H. Hodder, G. Sheppard, and S. Analusis Magazine Barbash, J. Ann Arbor, Mich. Bruchet, A. Analysis of trace compounds responsible for tastes and odors in drinking water. Analusis Maganzine Bucheli, T. Gruebler, S. Mueller, and R. Simultaneous determination of neutral and acidic pesticides in natural water at the low nanogram per liter range. Burlingame, A. Boyd, and S. Mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry RR. Buser, H. Poiger, and M. Occurrence and fate of the pharmaceutical drug diclophenac in surface waters: Rapid photodegradation in a lake.

Environmental Science and Technology Cancilla, D. Que Hee. O- 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorophenyl methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride: A versatile reagent for the determination of carbonyl-containing compounds. Christman, R. Norwood, D. Millington, J. Johnson, and A. Identity and yields of major halogenated products of aquatic fulvic acid chlorination.

Church, C. Isabelle, J. Pankcow, D. Rose, and P. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water. Crescenzi, C. Di Corcia, E. Guerriero, and R. Development of a multiresidue method for analyzing pesticide traces in water based on solid-phase. Di Corcia, A. Marcomini, and R. Samperi, and A. Monitoring aromatic surfactants and their aromatic surfactants and their biodegradation intermediates in raw and treated sewage by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography.

Drozd, J. Chemical Derivatization in Gas Chromatography. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Fujita, Y. Ding, and M. Identification of wastewater DOC characteristics in reclaimed wastewater and recharged groundwater. Water Environment Research Glaze, W. A unified approach to the analysis of polar organic by-products of oxidation in aqueous matrices.

Water Research Gonzalez-Maze, E. Honing, D. Geneva; WHO. The mortality effects of long-term exposure to particulate air pollution in the United Kingdom. London: Health Protection Agency; Understanding the health impacts of air pollution in London. Every breath we take: the lifelong impact of air pollution. Report of a working party. London: RCP; Critical evaluation of the European diesel car boom — global comparison, environmental effects and various national strategies. Environ Sci Eur ; Linking ambient particulate matter pollution effects with oxidative biology and immune responses.

Ann NY Acad Sci ;— Outdoor air pollution and asthma.

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Effect of outdoor air pollution on asthma exacerbations in children and adults: systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis. PLoS One ;12 3 :e Short-term exposure to air pollution and lung function in the Framingham Heart Study. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.

N Engl J Med ; 24 — Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. Eur Respir J ;45 1 — Ambient air pollution exposure and incident adult asthma in a nationwide cohort of U. Air pollution and incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in black women living in Los Angeles. Circulation ; 6 — Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among older US adults.

Am J Epidemiol ; 4 — Cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution exposure: time course and underlying mechanisms. J Intern Med ; 3 — Motor vehicle air pollution and asthma in children: a meta-analysis. Environ Res ;— The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med ; 11 — Long-term exposure to traffic emissions and fine particulate matter and lung function decline in the Framingham Heart Study.

Association of improved air quality with lung development in children. Relationship between air pollution, lung function and asthma in adolescents. Thorax ;62 11 — Why does lung function predict mortality? Am J Epidemiol ; 12 — Air Pollution: Outdoor air quality and health. London: NICE; Ultra Low Emission Zone.

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    Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology) Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)
    Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology) Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)
    Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology) Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)
    Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology) Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)
    Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology) Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Advances in Pharmacology)
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