Mehevi, in conducting his warlike operations, rather inclined to the Fabian than to the Bonapartean tactics, husbanding his resources and exposing his troops to no unnecessary hazards. The total loss of the victors in this obstinately contested affair was, in killed, wounded, and missing — one forefinger and part of a thumb-nail which the late proprietor brought along with him in his hand , a severely contused arm, and a considerable effusion of blood flowing from the thigh of a chief, who had received an ugly thrust from a Happar spear. The narrator instead explores an ambivalent world, the representation of which is constantly reassessed by his own gaze as he deepens his exploration of Typee culture.
It is only glimpsed obliquely and metonymically the body is incomplete after the enemy has been killed, dismembered and eaten. The first associations between classical art and the Polynesians seem to aestheticize and evacuate the violence in which the islanders were believed to indulge. His unclad limbs were beautifully formed; whilst the elegant outline of his figure, together with his beardless cheeks, might have entitled him to the distinction of standing for the statue of the Polynesian Apollo; and indeed the oval of his countenance and the regularity of every feature reminded me of an antique bust.
Yet it is associated with utmost suffering when it is referred to as a practice and a craft — i. Whereas his narrative transforms Marnoo into a Polynesian Apollo, the potential hybridization of the narrator into a European Typee by his hosts is depicted in terms of coercion and terror. Tattooing is first presented as a most painful operation:. I beheld a man extended flat upon his back on the ground, and, despite the forced composure of his countenance, it was evident that he was suffering agony.
His tormentor bent over him, working away for all the world like a stone-cutter with mallet and chisel. What makes this shift from craft to torture possible is that the process of reification of the body is incomplete: although it is likened to a block of stone, it remains sensitive and is thus subject to agonizing pains.
In Typee , instead of coming to life after being completed, the statue is already human before it is turned into an artefact, the episode presenting a nightmarish vision of sculpture in the flesh.
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This passage may also be read as a mise-en-abyme of the violence of writing, paper and pen being replaced by human skin and a chisel. The possibility of this form of violence exerted on his body immediately leads to the paradoxical resurfacing of another form of violence — that of the imperial gaze — in a novel which precisely aims at exposing the evils of colonialism.
As the use of possessive adjectives indicates, whiteness is immediately turned into a sign of self-assertion which reinstates a clear line between the Western world and the inhabitants of the Polynesian islands. What is threatened here is not so much his body as his western identity — a form of racial anxiety which Samuel Otter has explored in relation to the development of the American school of ethnography in the nineteenth century Sculpture in this chapter therefore unveils an aporetic process as it crystallizes a fear of violence while simultaneously re-enacting another form of violence which is never referred to as such and which the narrative was meant to challenge.
Several allusions to the Greco-Roman worlds associate Billy with ancient sculpture. It was strength and beauty. Tales of his prowess were recited. Ashore he was the champion; afloat the spokesman; on every suitable occasion always foremost. One reason for this is to be found in the way Billy is constantly gazed at by the other characters. I dare say he never meant to do quite so much as he did, but anyhow he gave the burly fool a terrible drubbing […] And lord bless you, the lubber was astonished at the celerity.
This violence which Billy does not only fall prey to but also performs does not necessarily undermine the Apollonian quality of the character. The relation between the two characters and its fatal outcome have often been explored in the light of their biblical hypotext: Billy appears like an adamic figure while Claggart is compared to a serpent or a snake shortly before and just after his death. The aforementioned allusions to Apollo as well as the celerity with which Billy strikes his blow make such an interpretive choice all the more arguable 1.
Do allusions to classical art contain the violence displayed here? The latter manifests itself in this interstice of writing which wavers between visibility and invisibility, but also between language and muteness. It is to be apprehended spectrally, in a textual void that no word is to fill. In other terms, violence is made partly visible through these references to ancient culture while remaining unspeakable. Indeed, the classical heritage in which the handsome sailor is rooted involves a network of heterogeneous and paradoxical references to historical or mythological figures of the ancient world.
These multiple images undermine the permanence and serenity often associated with ancient art: on the contrary, Billy turns out to be a multifaceted and androgynous figure who is both a performer of violence as the allusions to Apollo and Hercules suggest, but also a victim of violence when he is likened to a British captive or to a vestal. This cluster of images around the figure of Billy never resolves into a stable representation and eventually results in destruction.
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The killing of Claggart cannot be reduced to a purely individual deed or impulse, and it is no coincidence that Melville dedicated several chapters of the novella to the mutinies which occurred in the late eighteenth century. Irvine, J. Nature , vol. Jamison, A. Gothenburg, Sweden: University of Gothenburg. Katterle, S. Koln: Bund Verlag, str.
Kochen, M. Korrennoi, A.
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Dobrov, Leydesdorff, L. Acta Sociologica , vol. Mahey, R. Mansell The Penang declaration on science and technology. Mansfield, E. Martin, B. London, itd: Pinter. Mayer-Krahmer, F. M'bow, A. McCulloch, R. Mikulinskij, S. Moskva, itd: Nauka.
From Research Policy to Social Intelligence: Essays for Stevan Dedijer
Berlin: Akademie Verlag, Bd Current Sociology , vol. Moed, H. Narin, F. Nelson, R. Norman, L. Science , vol. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Main science and technology indicators. Paris, br. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Evaluation of research. Paris, passim.
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Paris, Annex I, p, Paris, Ch. To acquire the technology and the technical capabilities for the production of goods and the provision of services. To acquire a national capacity for autonomous decision-making in technological matters. Main types of activities covered.
Development, adaptation, reverse engineering, technology transfer, and engineering design, which generate ready-to-use knowledge. Appropriation of results of activities covered. Results in the form of ready-to-use knowledge re main largely in hands of those who generated them; patents, secret know-how, and human embodied knowledge ensure appropriation.
Primarily internal to the scientific community. Evaluation of activities is based mainly on scientific merit and occasionally on possible applications. Primarily external to the technical and engineering community.
Evaluation based mainly on contribution to social and economic objectives. Universal: activities and results have worldwide validity. Localized to firm, branch, sector, or national level : activities and results have validity in a specific context.
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